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Tuesday, February 7 • 4:00pm - 4:20pm
Symposia Session - S8: Fate of Freshwater Mussels. Potential Use of Zequanox® for Conservation of Freshwater Mussels

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AUTHORS: James Luoma, Diane Waller, Todd Severson, Jeremy Wise, Kerry Weber - USGS – Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center; Denise Mayer, New York State Education Department - New York State Museum Field Research Laboratory

ABSTRACT: After invasion of a water body, the impacts of dreissenids on unionid populations range from moderate to extirpation. In 1999, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services’ Genoa National Fish Hatchery launched a unionid mussel program to propagate the federally listed Higgins Eye Pearlymussel which was facing extinction after the introduction of zebra mussels into the Mississippi River. A key component of the propagation program, cage culture, requires the stocking of glochidia-infested fish into cages placed in the river. The mussels are allowed to excyst from the fish and grow in the cages for up to 18 months before collection for relocation. Proper cage site selection is paramount to avoid sedimentation and dreissenid fouling has rendered formerly productive cage sites unusable.
Zequanox®, an EPA registered biopesticide for controlling dreissenid mussels in open waters, contains killed cells of a specific strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens as the active ingredient and has demonstrated specificity towards dreissenids. We conducted safety and efficacy studies to evaluate the use of Zequanox® for managing dreissenids during unionid propagation and for conserving unionid populations within dreissenid-infested waters. Our field studies included tank-exposures in which we evaluated the safety of Zequanox® exposure to seven species of subadult/adult unionid mussels by exposing mussels to the maximum label concentration (200 mg Zequanox®/L) for up to 3x the recommended exposure duration of 8-h and assessing survival ~30 days after exposure. In a second field study we evaluated the efficacy of Zequanox® for removing dreissenids adhering to unionid mussels. In this study, Zequanox® was applied within 2.25-m2 in-lake enclosures up to the maximum label concentration for 8 hours. The survival of unionids and the reduction in adhering zebra mussels was assessed ~ 20 days after exposure. Study methods, comparisons of unionid survival, and reduction in adhering zebra mussels will be discussed.

Tuesday February 7, 2017 4:00pm - 4:20pm CST
Grand Ballroom A

Attendees (6)